Simulation of Automatic Control System for Electric Power Losses in Unbalanced Loads
Large power consumers or consumers who have their own distribution substations such as hotels, offices, shopping centers, industries, etc. has the installation connected to 3 phase electricity which includes the R phase, S phase and T phase. The planning and installation of electrical installations carried out by the installer (electrical experts), always refers to the design of the load connected in the R, S and T phase which try to be balanced. However, in its operation (ON / OFF), the electrical load cannot be adjusted the balance to each phase, because its operation (ON / OFF) is adjusted to the needs of the electrical equipment installed in each phase, resulting in an unbalanced load. This unbalanced loads in each phase can cause electrical power losses. Electricity power losses will increase if additional loads or electrical installation development are carried out without referring to the initial design. This study is aim to simulate the control system which automatically minimizes the occurrences of imbalance in phase load. The control system will work automatically to adjust the load between phases, by moving the load that is detected to be larger in one phase to phase which detected to have small amount of load, until it is relatively balanced in the R, S and T phase. In addition, this control system can also detect if there is one or two phases that are lost (OFF), where the system will provide information to the user in the form of an alarm, which indicates that there has been a phase loss, so that the user can perform an overall off to the power deliberately, to avoid large power losses. The method used in making the system is a method of research and development, which hase stages including literature studies, field studies, to obtain data relating to the making of the system. The next stage is the design of simulated hardware and software through the Proteus program. The next step is to test the work of the control system based on the system algorithm made through program simulation. From the results of the tests carried out, when there is a load imbalance; for example the load detected in Phase R is 2 Amperes, in Phase S it is 1.5 Ampere and in Phase T is 1 Ampere, the system will automatically move one of the electrical lines from Phase R to one of the paths of Phase T, so that the overload occur in Phase R handled by Phase T. Other than that, in the insidence where there is an indication of a missing phase, the system will provide information on the alarm indicator and display it on the LCD monitor about the case.
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